Lithops – Flowering Stones

Contents

List of figuresix
Foreword
by Gordon D. Rowley, President: British Cactus and Succulent Society1

1  

Introduction

3
Preamble3
How it all began7
Acknowledgements8
Abbreviations, terms, symbols and measures10

2

Morphology and Annual Cycle

13
General features13
Annual cycle13
Size of plant14
Age of Lithops plant15
Shape of plant16
Upper profile16
Facial shape17
Fissure and cleft17
Facial features19
Tanniniferous idioblasts20
Flowers21
Seeds capsules22
The miracle of the seed capsule24
Seeds and seed structure24

3

Names and Nomenclature

27
Vernacular names27
Scientific (Latin) and authors' names27
Origins of scientific names30
Authors of Lithops taxa31

4

Classification

33
Past traditions33
Proposed perspectives35
Application of criteria37
Future researches38
The Problem of *Lithops turbiniformis38
The Problem of *Lithops localis41
The Problem of Lithops steineckeana43
The Problem of the Ywc group44

Map 1  Distribution of Lithops N.E. Brown

46

5

Lithops in Habitat

47
Distribution47
Specific and overlapping ranges48
Size and density of colonies49
Habitats50
Variation in Lithops51
Mimicry53
Colour photographs of Lithops in habitat55
Evolutionary convergence63
Dispersal mechanisms64
Pollinators65
Predators65
Hybrids, artificial and natural69
Natural freaks and curiosities71

6

Lithops in Cultivation

73
General culture73
Soil mixes73
Watering74
Pests and diseases74
Growing Lithops from seed75
Transplanting78
Flowers and flowering times79
Abnormalities and aberrations80
Colour-aberrant cultivars83

7

Descriptive Settings

86
Terminology86
The illustrations91
Distribution maps92

Map 2  Northern and central SWA/Namibia

93
Map 3  Southern SWA/Namibia, NW Cape95
Map 4  Central and northern Cape96
Map 5  NE Cape, OFS and Transvaal97
Map 6  SW and S Cape98

Description of the Taxa

99
Lithops aucampiae101
subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae101
cv. Betty´s Beryl101
cv. Storms´s Snowcap102
var. koelemanii102
subsp. euniceae var. euniceae103
var. fluminalis104
Lithops bromfieldii105
var. bromfieldii105
var. glaudinae106
var. insularis107
cv. Sulphurea108
var. mennellii108
Lithops comptonii110
var. comptonii110
var. weberi111
Lithops dinteri112
subsp. dinteri var. dinteri112
cv. Dintergreen113
var. brevis113
subsp. frederici114
subsp. multipunctata115
Lithops divergens117
var. divergens117
var. amethystina118
Lithops dorotheae119
Lithops francisci120
Lithops fulviceps121
var. fulviceps121
cv. Aurea122
var. lactinea123
Lithops gesineae124
var. gesineae124
var. annae125
Lithops geyeri126
Lithops gracilidelineata128
subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata128
cv. Ernst´s Witkop129
var. waldroniae130
cv. Fritz´s White Lady130
subsp. brandbergensis131
Lithops hallii132
var. hallii132
var. ochracea133
cv. Green Soapstone134
Lithops helmutii135
Lithops herrei136
Lithops hookeri138
var. hookeri138
var. dabneri139
var. elephina140
var. lutea141
var. marginata142
var. subfenestrata144
var. susannae145
Lithops julii146
subsp. julii146
cv. Peppermint Crème148
subsp. fulleri148
var. fulleri148
cv. Fullergreen150
var. brunnea150
var. rouxii151
Lithops karasmontana152
subsp. karasmontana152
var. karasmontana152
var. aiaisensis154
var. lericheana155
var. tischeri156
subsp. bella157
subsp. eberlanzii158
cv. Avocado Cream160
Lithops lesliei161
subsp. lesliei161
var. lesliei161
cv. Albiflora163
cv. Albinica163
cv. Storms´s Albinigold163
var. hornii163
cv. Greenhorn164
var. mariae165
var. minor166
cv. Witblom166
var. rubrobrunnea167
var. venteri167
subsp. burchellii168
Lithops marmorata170
var. marmorata170
var. elisae171
Lithops meyeri172
cv. Hammeruby173
Lithops naureeniae174
Lithops olivacea175
var. olivacea175
var. nebrownii176
Lithops optica177
cv. Rubra178
Lithops otzeniana179
cv. Aquamarine180
Lithops pseudotruncatella181
subsp. pseudotruncatella181
var. pseudotruncatella181
cv. Albiflora182
var. elisabethiae183
var. riehmerae183
subsp. archerae185
subsp. dendritica186
subsp. groendrayensis187
subsp. volkii188
Lithops ruschiorum189
var. ruschiorum189
var. lineata190
Lithops salicola192
cv. Malachite193
Lithops schwantesii194
subsp. schwantesii var. schwantesii194
var. marthae195
var. rugosa196
var. urikosensis197
subsp. gebseri198
Lithops steineckeana200
Lithops terricolor201
cv. Silver Spurs202
cv. Speckled Gold203
Lithops vallis-mariae203
Lithops verruculosa205
var. verruculosa205
var. glabra206
Lithops villetii207
subsp. villetii207
subsp. deboeri208
subsp. kennedyi209
Lithops viridis211
Lithops werneri212

Taxonomic Index

215
Bibliography and References235
General Index241
List of Subscribers247