Lithops – Flowering Stones

Contents

List of figures2
Foreword
by Gordon D. Rowley, President: British Cactus and Succulent Society3

1  

Introduction

5
Preamble5
How it all began8
Acknowledgements9
Introduction to second edition10
Key to the genus Lithops11
Abbreviations, terms, symbols and measures13

2

Morphology and Annual Cycle

15
General features15
Annual Cycle16
Size of plant16
Age of Lithops plant17
Shape of plant18
Upper profile18
Facial shape19
Fissure and cleft19
Facial features20
Tanniniferous idioblasts21
Flowers and Fruits22
Seed capsules23
The miracle of the seed capsule23
Seeds and seed structure25

3

Names and Nomenclature

26
Vernacular names26
Scientific [Latin] and authors' names26
Origins of scientific names28
Authors of Lithops taxa30

4

Classification

31
Past traditions31
Proposed perspectives32
Application of criteria34
Future researches35
The Problem of Lithops halenbergensis35
The Problem of *Lithops localis36
The Problem of Lithops steineckeana37
The Problem of *Lithops turbiniformis39
The Problem of the Ywc group41

Map 1  Distribution of Lithops N.E. Brown

42

5

Lithops in Habitat

43
Distribution43
Specific and overlapping ranges44
Size and density of colonies45
Habitats45
Variation in Lithops46
Mimicry47
Evolutionary convergence50
Dispersal mechanisms51
Pollinators52
Predators53
Hybrids, artificial and natural55
Natural freaks and curiosities57

6

Lithops in Cultivation

58
Soil mixes58
Watering58
Pests and diseases59
Growing Lithops from seed60
Transplanting62
Flowers and flowering times63
Abnormalities and aberrations64
Aberrant Colour Forms (acf)65

7

Descriptive Setting

69
Terminology69
The illustrations73
Distribution Maps74

Map 2  Northern and central Namibia

75
Map 3  Southern Namibia, NW Cape77
Map 4  Central and northern Cape78
Map 5  NE Cape, OFS and Transvaal79
Map 6  SW and S Cape80

8

Description of the Taxa

81
Lithops aucampiae82
subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae83
acf Betty's Beryl85
acf Jackson's Jade86
acf Storms's Snowcap86
var. koelemanii87
subsp. euniceae var. euniceae88
acf 'Hikoruby'90
var. fluminalis90
acf 'Chieruby'93
acf 'Green River'93
Lithops bromfieldii94
var. bromfieldii95
acf 'White Nymph'97
var. glaudinae98
var. insularis99
acf 'Sulphurea'100
var. mennellii101
Lithops coleorum104
Lithops comptonii106
var. comptonii107
var. weberi108
Lithops dinteri112
subsp. dinteri var. dinteri113
acf 'Dintergreen'114
var. brevis115
subsp. frederici116
subsp. multipunctata117
Lithops divergens121
var. divergens122
var. amethystina123
Lithops dorotheae126
Lithops francisci130
Lithops fulviceps132
var. fulviceps133
acf 'Aurea'135
var. lactinea135
Lithops gesineae138
var. gesineae139
var. annae141
Lithops geyeri142
Lithops gracilidelineata144
subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata145
acf 'Ernst's Witkop'148
var. waldroniae148
acf 'Fritz's White Lady'149
subsp. brandbergensis149
Lithops hallii153
var. hallii154
var. ochracea156
acf 'Green Soapstone'158
Lithops helmutii160
Lithops hermetica162
acf 'Green Diamond'165
Lithops herrei166
acf 'Splendido'169
Lithops hookeri170
var. hookeri172
acf 'Envy'173
var. dabneri173
var. elephina177
var. lutea178
var. marginata181
acf 'Shimada's Apricot'182
var. subfenestrata182
var. susannae185
Lithops julii188
subsp. julii189
acf 'Peppermint Crème'192
subsp. fulleri var. fulleri193
acf 'Fullergreen'194
var. brunnea194
var. rouxii196
Lithops karasmontana198
subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana199
var. aiaisensis201
var. lericheana203
var. tischeri206
subsp. bella209
subsp. eberlanzii211
acf 'Avocado Cream'213
Lithops lesliei214
subsp. lesliei var. lesliei216
acf 'Albiflora'219
acf 'Albinica'219
acf 'Fred's Redhead'220
acf 'Storms's Albinigold'220
var. hornii220
acf 'Greenhorn'221
var. mariae221
var. minor223
acf 'Witblom'224
var. rubrobrunnea225
var. venteri226
subsp. burchellii229
Lithops marmorata231
var. marmorata232
acf 'Polepsky Smaragd'234
var. elisae234
Lithops meyeri236
acf 'Hammeruby'238
Lithops naureeniae239
Lithops olivacea242
var. olivacea243
var. nebrownii244
acf 'Red Olive'246
Lithops optica247
acf 'Rubra'251
acf 'Rubragold'251
Lithops otzeniana252
acf 'Aquamarine'255
acf 'Cesky Granat'255
Lithops pseudotruncatella256
subsp. pseudotruncatella var. pseudotruncatella257
acf 'Albiflora'259
var. elisabethiae260
var. riehmerae262
subsp. archerae264
acf 'Split Pea'264
subsp. dendritica266
subsp. groendrayensis267
subsp. volkii270
Lithops ruschiorum272
var. ruschiorum273
acf 'Silver Reed'274
var. lineata275
Lithops salicola276
acf 'Bacchus'278
acf 'Malachite'278
Lithops schwantesii279
subsp. schwantesii var. schwantesii280
var. marthae283
var. rugosa285
var. urikosensis287
subsp. gebseri288
Lithops steineckeana290
Lithops terricolor291
acf 'Silver Spurs'293
acf 'Speckled Gold'293
acf 'Violetta'293
Lithops vallis-mariae294
acf 'Valley Girl'296
Lithops verruculosa298
var. verruculosa299
acf 'Verdigris'302
var. glabra302
Lithops villetii304
subsp. villetii305
subsp. deboeri307
subsp. kennedyi308
Lithops viridis312
Lithops werneri315

9

Lithops Locality Data

317
Introduction317
Numerical List318
Species Index325
Index of Place Names326
Administrative Map327

10

Taxonomic Index

329

11

Bibliography and References

350

12 

General Index

355